A number of renderings that have been seen as theologically motivated could be explained simply on linguistic and co-textual grounds, and, while there is theological interpretation in individual cases, is not possible to identify any conscious systematization. In the light of this study, the eschatological and messianic hopes of the translator of LXX Isaiah can be said to come only partly into view in his translation. LXX Isa ; ; 2. LXX Isa 2. Pericope Delimitation and Reading 3. Contextual Awareness as Reading Strategy 4. Reading Strategy and Ideological Imprints 5.
Eschatology and Messianism in LXX Isaiah 1-12
Parallel Translation 5. Analysis 6. LXX Isa 1. The Mount of the Lord 1. The Way of the Lord 2. The Rendering of xmc 2.
The boule of God 2. The Manifestation of the Lord's boule "with glory upon the earth" 2. The Limited Duration of God's Wrath 2. The Exaltation and Glorification of the Remnant 2. For a summary of the narrative and thematic cohesiveness of the section, see M. However, a few caveats are in order. First, one notes that distinctive markers of text breaks, or the lack of them, in the wording of the trans- lation are characteristic only of this short section of Isaiah.
Moreover, if the analogy between the work of the translator and of the scribe holds, we do not know to what extent scribes were engaged in in- depth analysis of the content of pericopes. Similarly, even if we acknowledge that the translator followed, at least to some degree, scribal traditions of text delimitation, we are still not sure how he would conceptualize pericopes or textual units. There are considerable differences between the way the ancients conceived units of text and modern conceptual categories of paragraph, pericope or, even, book.
It is quite possible that this is due to the differences in the content of the oracles following the superscriptions, and this could be an indication that the translator took the context into account. In his translation of , Ottley, Isaiah, , opts for concerning, while also entertaining the possibility of against, on the basis of 2 Sam ; Matt ; Acts , and the data presented by LSJ. Tov, Background, Barton, What is a Book? These units were different from the modern notion of pericope, and were under- stood more in terms of sentence breaks, dialogue delimiters, or prosodic categories, such as tropes.
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It also gives us a new perspective to approach the apparent internal coherence of pericopes in LXX Isaiah. If it is true that the Isaiah translator took notice of the pericope delimitations in his Vorlage and, consequently, read his text with a sense of contextual coherence, then we should not be surprised if this awareness is felt in the translation.
In other words, indications of contextual awareness or internal coherence in the Greek text, even if different from the Hebrew, do not point to a supposed intention to pro- duce a Greek oracle in its own right, but simply give insight into how the translator read the text and tried to represent it. Also, since the notion of pericope was conceptualized differently in antiquity, an awareness of text delimitation is no guarantee against readings that we would consider atomistic, but which could comfortably co-exist with more contextual ones.
The question is how best to explain these indications of coherence or contextual awareness.
Contextual Awareness as Reading Strategy An important insight to be gained from cognitive linguistic approaches is the notion that comprehension of meaning does not come simply from understanding the meaning of words and sentences, or solely on the literal decoding of linguistic structures. Besides these rules that govern the functioning of discourse, the reader is informed, on a. Brown and G. It is readily noticeable that this section forms a coherent unit in Hebrew.
Its contents as well as the text division indicators in manuscripts would have invited the translator to read the text with at least some assumption of coherence, as cognitive linguists would express it. Even though the atomistic reading of verses was largely a feature of ancient exegesis, the fact that texts were written as discrete units makes it reasonable to assume that, at least to some degree, they were also read as such. The assumption of coherence, together with other expectations with regard to the functioning of a passage such as Isa , is the most likely explanation of the attempt to harmonize the refrains in the section.
It is a quite natural move for an interpreter immersed in the Hebrew text to expect that the repeated refrains display a certain unity and for him to express this in his trans- lation. Reading Strategy and Ideological Imprints The mechanisms of actualizing interpretation are intimately connected with cognitive reading strategies. It is likely that, in line with other streams of ancient Jewish exegesis, the LXX Isaiah translator held certain expectations and assumptions regarding his text, and interpreted it according to certain socially inherited norms, among which was the idea that the text prophetically addressed his contemporary situation.
Certain passages offer themselves more readily to be read in an actualizing manner, particularly those with eschatological and messianic themes, and those which somehow address the plight of the Jewish community.
Eschatology and Messianism in LXX Isaiah - Rodrigo F. de Sousa - Google книги
In such texts it is easier to perceive ideological imprints of a translator who, while trying to represent his Vorlage faithfully, inter- preted it in particular ways. And I shall turn my hand against you; And I shall bring my hand upon you; and I shall smelt your dross away And I shall burn you into pure, like lye, and I shall remove all your alloy. Clark, , 5, notes that in the Targum makes explicit that the separa- tion of the wicked envisaged in v.
The question whether the LXX and the Targum are following general linguistic conventions or a common exegetical tradi- tion is left open. For a more detailed discussion, see J.
Levene and B. Weitzman ed. Rapaport-Albert and G. The last term appears four times in LXX Isaiah. The idea encompassed by? The term?
It is clear that lawless and sinners were conceptual catego- ries that pertained to the ideological background of the translator and repeatedly made their way into his renderings, as the objects of divine wrath. Seeligmann, Isaiah, Incidentally, this is the same theme that underlies Koenig, LHermneutique analogique, The connection with was previously noted by Ottley, Isaiah, We are dealing here with the imprint of elements from the translators ideological background in the translation.
This imprint does not neces- sarily indicate a conscious desire to update or rewrite the Isaianic prophecies. We may recall Seeligmann, who, while acknowledging the interpretative tendency of the translator, was mindful that there are considerable differences in the origin of the deviations between original and translation, as well as in the degree of consciousness with which these deviations were introduced.
In order to grasp more precisely the mechanisms by which ideological imprints are left in the translation, we can turn to the distinction between levels of interpretation. Barr, Typology, Tov, Text-Critical Use, One should locate in this higher level of interpretation the translators presuppositions, theology, and methods. In this way we can conceptualize a translator who attempts to produce a faithful rendering of his Vorlage but who, consciously or not, left such ideological marks on his text as to give it a markedly different outlook for subsequent readers.
Noticing its indications of contextual awareness, van der Kooij argues that LXX Isa is well organized and therefore on the textual level, constitutes a new composition in comparison to MT and 1QIsaa. Van der Kooij offers a very plausible reconstruction of the historical background of the LXX rendering. However, I shall argue that, from a methodological standpoint, it is better to describe the form of the Greek oracle in terms of reading strategies and ideological imprints than as a new composition. The translators expectation that the prophecy was directed to his genera- tion, his theological and ideological worldview, and actual encounters.
For thus spoke Yahweh to me with a Thus says the Lord: With a strong hand strong hand and instructed me not to walk in the they refuse the path of the way of this way of this people people saying : saying :.
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Do not say conspiracy Do not say It is hard; of all that this people call conspiracy; For all that this people ever say is hard, and do not fear what they fear, and do not fear their fear, and do not be frightened. Yahweh of hosts, him you shall sanctify; The Lord, sanctify him And he shall be your fear, and he shall be your fear. And if you are trusting in him, And he shall be a sanctuary, he shall be to you for a sanctuary, and a stone of offence, and not as an offence of a stone you shall meet him and a rock of stumbling or as a stumbling of a rock, for the two houses of Israel; but the house of Jacob trap and snare in a trap and in a hollow to the inhabitant of Jerusalem.
And many shall stumble on them? Bind the testimony; Then, will be manifest seal the Torah among my disciples.
Analysis The syntactical structure of the Greek in is markedly different from the Hebrew.