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The practice was outlawed in Hose and breeches, which cover the legs individually, become more common garments for men. These farthingales become popular in France and England and are later known as the Spanish farthingale. The Kuba people, living in the present-day nation of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, weave a decorative cloth called Kuba cloth. The fashion for long wigs continues later when, at the age of thirty-five, Louis begins to cover his thinning hair with wigs to maintain his beloved style.

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Trousers come to symbolize the ideas of the Revolution, an effort to make French people more equal, and soon men of all classes are wearing long trousers. The hair is decorated with a model of the ship in full sail. The shoe later became known as the tennis shoe. American inventor T. Williams develops a cake of mascara and a brush to darken the lashes and sells them through the mail under the name Maybelline.

B Bias cut: A fabric cut diagonally across the weave to create a softly draped garment. Bombast: Padding used to increase the width or add bulk to the general silhouette of a garment. Brim: The edge of a hat that projects outward away from the head. Brocade: A fabric woven with a raised pattern over the entire sur- face. Crown: The portion of a hat that covers the top of the head; may also refer to the top part of the head. Cuff: A piece of fabric sewn at the bottom of a sleeve. D Double-breasted: A style of jacket in which one side usually the left overlaps in the front of the other side, fastens at the waist with a vertical row of buttons, and has another row of buttons on the opposite side that is purely decorative.

See also Single-breasted. E Embroidery: Needlework designs on the surface of a fabric, added for decoration. G Garment: Any article of clothing. H Hemline: The bottom edge of a skirt, jacket, dress, or other garment. Hide: The pelt of an animal with the fur intact.

Most frequently terms

I Instep: The upper surface of the arched middle portion of the hu- man foot in front of the ankle joint. L Lapel: One of the two flaps that extend down from the collar of a coat or jacket and fold back against the chest. Lasts: The foot-shaped forms or molds that are used to give shape to shoes in the process of shoemaking.

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Leather: The skin or hide of an animal cleaned and treated to soften it and preserve it from decay. Linen: A fabric woven from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen was one of the first woven fabrics. M Mule: A shoe without a covering or strap around the heel of the foot. Muslin: A thin cotton fabric. P Patent Leather: Leather varnished and buffed to a high shine. Placket: A slit in a dress, blouse, or skirt. Pleat: A decorative feature on a garment in which fabric has been doubled over, pressed, and stitched in place.

Q Queue: A ponytail of hair gathered at the back of a wig with a band. S Silhouette: The general shape or outline of the human body. Single-breasted: A jacket fastened down the front with a single row of buttons.

See also Double-breasted. Sole: The bottom of a shoe, covering the bottom of the foot. Straights: The forms, or lasts, used to make the soles of shoes without differentiating between the left and right feet. Suede: Skin from a young goat, called kidskin or calfskin, buffed to a velvet-like finish. Synthetic: A term used to describe chemically made fabrics, such as nylon, acrylic, polyester, and vinyl.

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T Taffeta: A shiny, smooth fabric woven of silk or other materials. Textile: A cloth or fabric, especially when woven or knitted. Throat: The opening of a shoe at the instep. Twill: A fabric with a diagonal line pattern woven onto the surface. U Upper: The parts of a shoe above the sole.

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  8. W Wig: A head covering worn to conceal the hair or to cover a bald head. The majority of the people, known as peasants, worked on small farms and paid some form of tax to a local lord, who provided the land on which they worked and also offered protection.

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    These lords, who might be dukes, barons, or even kings, were the leading figures in the various kingdoms, states, duchys the territory ruled by a duke , and other small regions by which most of Europe was organized. They were surrounded by advisers and leading merchants, who formed their court, and also by warriors, known as knights, who fought for them.

    In some parts of Europe, especially in England and France, these lords began to ally themselves behind the power of one king. Henry VII united England during his reign, from to , and Francis I later did the same for France during his reign from to These alliances of nobles under one king began the process that eventually organized Europe into the nations we know today. But at the dawn of the fifteenth century this process had just begun, and for the most part the political organization of Europe was characterized by distinct and often warring kingdoms.

    Europeans were also connected by growing networks of trade and commerce. Roads established during the Roman Empire 27 B. Finally, they were also linked in their clothing styles. Though there were some important regional variations, for the most part people in England, France, Italy, Germany, and Spain tended to dress similarly.

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    A Renaissance of learning and culture Europeans in the fifteenth century typically wore clothing rich in colors and fabrics. Beginning in the late fourteenth century and escalating in the fifteenth century, two regions began to lead a rebirth, called the Renaissance, of learning, culture, and commerce. This Renaissance began in Italy, especially around the city of Florence, and in a region known as Burgundy, which included parts of modern-day France and Holland.

    The Italian states developed banking and trading systems that helped stabilize the economy throughout Europe. The duchy of Burgundy also grew very wealthy. In both areas wealthy nobles and merchants poured money into art, learning, clothing, and decoration such as jewelry. The Renaissance is known for its abundance of fine art and architecture, and for its renewed emphasis on literature and learning. But it also encouraged merchants and traders to expand their businesses. Soon these businesspeople extended their trade further and further. One of the most thriving industries in early Europe was the textile industry, which made rich fabrics available to more people than ever before.

    Soon the Renaissance spread to the rest of Europe.

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    By the middle of the fifteenth century, Europe was ready for the Renaissance that had begun in Italy and Burgundy. After the kingdom of Spain grew more stable, as did the nearby kingdom of Portugal. Though Germany was divided into a number of smaller states, these too were fairly stable. The increased stability in these nations allowed people to concentrate on developing trade and commerce, which in turn created wealth for a larger number of people. This growing interest in trade also fed directly into the rise of exploration that saw European explorers, especially from Spain, Portugal, and England, discovering new territories and trade routes around the world.

    Fashion, Costume and Culture / Vol.1-5. The Ancient World

    All of these trends combined to create the cultural flowering during the late fifteenth century known as the Renaissance. The fifteenth century was a great era of transition in Europe, and that transition was also seen in the clothing worn by Europeans. The Renaissance: A Short History. New York: Modern Library, Kallen, Stuart A. The s.