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Public finances in Japan are fraught with major structural problems in the form of higher social security expenses from the aging of society and the rising cost of government bonds from the accumulation of public debt. In the fiscal central government budget, social-security-related expenditures take the largest share at When combined with the cost of servicing government bonds While reporting in newspapers and other mass media tends to focus on the growth of social security related expenditures in the general account, of far more importance is the growth of social security benefit expenditures financed by central and local governments.

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Social security related expenditures in the general account of the central government basically corresponds to the social security benefit expenditures paid by the national treasury and represent only a part of social security benefit expenditures. This suggests that the reform of public finances must center on the reform of social security. This situation is greatly influenced by the failure to allocate financial resources for social security expenditures, which have inevitably grown with the aging of society.

The proper approach should be to use tax revenues to cover the shortage of financial resources for social security expenditures.

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The economic and fiscal projections provide two scenarios: a high economic growth case economic revitalization case and a low-growth baseline case. In both these cases, the general government debt to GDP ratio is projected to decrease between fiscal and fiscal Since the public debt to GDP ratio is expected to decrease even in the low-growth scenario, this may give the impression that worries about public finances can be set aside.

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  6. However, growth rates being assumed for the economy remains major concerns. In the latest economic and fiscal projections, the growth rate of nominal GDP was increased in the low-growth baseline case compared to the previous projection. As seen in Figure 3, the nominal growth rate of the baseline case was revised upward from 1.

    This is the main reason for the decline of the debt to GDP ratio even in the low-growth baseline case. The argument might be made that the nominal growth rate assumed in the previous economic and fiscal projections was too high since nominal GDP grew at an average of only 0. Despite this record, nominal GDP was projected to increase at a rate of 1. Japan Trade Deficit Widens in July. Japan Inflation Rate Unchanged at 0.

    Japan Jobless Rate Unchanged at 2. Japan Inflation Rate Slows to 0. Japan Jobless Rate Inches Lower to 2.

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