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Charioteer of Delphi: Charioteer of Delphi. Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece. While the commissioner was a tyrant of the Greek colonial city of Gela on Sicily, the statue is believed to have been made in Athens. It was made by the lost wax technique in multiple sections and then assembled. The Charioteer stands tall, his right arm stretched out to grasp reins; his left arm is missing.


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He has a high waist, which probably looked more natural when he stood on his chariot. However, despite the high waist, the figure has a high degree of naturalism , on par with the marble sculptural developments of the Early Classical style. The arms, face, and feet are rendered with high plasticity, and the inlaid eyes and added copper of his lips and eyelashes all add a degree of naturalism.

When compared to Archaic sculptures, it appears very natural. However, as an Early Classical sculpture, the Charioteer has yet to achieve the full Classical style. The Archaic smile is gone, but his appears almost blank and expressionless, on par with other sculptures produced in the Severe stye of the Early Classical period. Bronze, c. The Riace Warriors are a set of two nude, bronze sculptures of male warriors that were recovered off the coast of Riace, Italy.

They are a prime example of Early Classical sculpture and the transition between Archaic to Classical sculpting styles.

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The figures are nude, unlike the Charioteer. Their bodies are idealized and appear dynamic, with freed limbs, a contrapposto shift in weight, and turned heads that imply movement. The muscles are modeled with a high degree of plasticity, which the bronze material amplifies through natural reflections of light.

Additional elements, such as copper for the lips and nipples, silver teeth, and eyes inlaid with glass and bone, were added to the figures to increase their naturalism. Both figures originally held a shield and spear, which are now lost. Warrior B wears a helmet, and it appears that Warrior A once wore a wreath around his head. The Artemision Bronze represents either Zeus or Poseidon. Both gods were represented with full beards to signify maturity. However, it is impossible to identify the sculpture as one god or the other because it can either be a lightning bolt symbolic of Zeus or a trident symbolic of Poseidon in his raised right hand.

The figure stands in heroic nude, as would be expected with a god, with his arms outstretched, preparing to strike. The bronze is in the Severe style with an idealized, muscular body and an expressionless face. Like the Charioteer and the Riace Warriors, the Artemision Bronze once held inlaid glass or stone in its now-vacant eye sockets to heighten its lifelikeness.

The right heel of the figure rises off the ground , which anticipates the motion the figure is about to undertake. The ceramic art from Early Classical Greece displays important compositional developments and increased naturalism in the figures.

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The Classical period witnessed the continuation of red- and black-figure painting techniques on ceramic objects. While artists continued to produce black-figure paintings into the second century BCE, the technique became increasingly rare, overtaken around BCE by red-figure painting. Attic red-figure vases were exported throughout Greece and beyond, and for a long time dominated the market for fine ceramics. Only a few centers of pottery production could compete with Athens in terms of its innovation, quality, and production capacity.

Red-figure painting continued to flourish during the Early, High, and Late Classical periods. The naturalism of the figures in Early Classical vase painting continued to increase, as the figures became less stocky and less linear. Both the figures and their drapery began to appear more plastic, and the scenes often depicted a single moment within a mythical story or event.

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Furthermore, vase painting began to be influenced by the changes occurring in both sculpture and the large-scale painting of walls and panels. The Mannerists were a group of Attic red-figure painters known for their affected emotive subject matter.


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Their main characteristic is that they maintained features of black-figure vase painting in the red-figure technique. Their figures seem elongated and have small heads, the garment folds fall stiff and resemble stairs, and the images are framed with black-figure style ornamentations. The range of motifs is also influenced by previous periods.

The figures gesticulate as if using a form of sign language—the hands often appear stiff and theatrical. This story alludes to ancient Greek admonitions against hubris, or extreme pride. The scene is one of the first vase painting scenes to show the figures on different ground lines. One child has even fallen behind a rock in the landscape. On the other side of the vase is an image of gods and heroes, with Herakles at the center.

All the figures stand and sit on various ground lines. The figures on both sides are depicted from multiple angles, including three-quarter view, and a profile eye is used for the figures in profile, a first in Greek vase painting. The reverse side of the krater depicts Artemis and Apollo slaying the children of Niobe. An Athenian red-figure calyx krater, c. The Berlin Painter is another well-known Early Classical vase painter. His unique style depicts figures, isolated from context, on a small ground line against a glossy black background.

He pays particular attention to the details of the body and the drapery of each figure, and allows both figure and drapery to express emotion, space , and movement. His painting entitled Ganymede with a Hoop and Cock conveys a sense of dynamism by arranging the body through a series of diagonal outlines, using contour lines to mark the locations of muscles and tendons beneath the skin. White-ground painting developed around BCE and gained popularity during the following century.

The technique is based on the use of paints, instead of slip, to create polychrome vessels.

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The vessels were first coated in a white slip before various colors of paint were added. The white background and firing techniques allowed for various colors to be used, including blue, yellow, red, brown, and green. Because the style is less durable than black- and red-figure painting, it was often used for votives and as grave offerings. The common outline paintings of the white-ground technique would not dominate the style until approximately the mid-fifth century BCE. For the first 50 years of white-ground painting, known as Type I, the imagery resembled conventional black-figure painting, with the color of the background as the only difference.

This depiction of Herakles fighting Geryon provides an example of Type I white-ground painting.

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Herakles Fighting Geryon: Herakles in the center attacks Geryon on the far right. Eurytion lays wounded at their feet. Athena on the left watches the scene. Attic white-ground black-figure lekythos. White-ground painting is often seen on a lekythos , a vessel used to hold oils, which were sometimes used for anointing the dead. Due to this funerary function, lekythoi were also used as grave offerings.

As such, many of the scenes painted on white-ground lekythoi depict or allude to funerary scenes such as funerary rites and rituals or images of warriors departing their wives for battle and death. While the scene of Herakles fighting Geryon depicts a rather violent prelude to death, the imagery on later lekythoi is somewhat more sedate. The Achilles Painter, a pupil of the Berlin Painter and creator of both red-figure and white-ground vessels, is one of the most well-known white ground painters.

The scenes he painted on his white-ground lekythoi are filled with pathos and sorrow, often depicting women sitting in front of grave stelae or bidding their battle-bound husbands farewell. Overall, in both white-ground and red-figure painting during the Early Classical period, the form of the body was perfected by the artisans.

Painted vessels were now depicting figures on a two-dimensional plane, with the illusion of three-dimensional space. These figures were rendered in that space naturally, in terms of their movement and form. Black-figure painting nearly disappeared in the Early Classical period and was primarily reserved for objects made to seem old or to recall antique styles, such as victory amphorae for the Panhellenic Games.

Greek art lecture 3 Archaic and Classical sculpture